Arts & Culture 
 Business 
 Environment 
 Government 
 Health 
 Human Rights 
 Military 
 Philosophy 
 Science 
 U.S. Asian Policy 


Home > Southeast Asia > 

Throw Them a Dissident
Vietnam Lures the U.S. Into Trade Deal
Scott Johnson
10/5/2006

The recent announcement by the Vietnamese government in August 2006 that they will release “some” dissidents in a general amnesty reminds me of a
conversation I had with a former US State Department official about his
deali ngs with the Soviets during the cold war. “Throw them a dissident”
was what he said and he described how the Soviets would play the stalling
game, by keeping Western diplomatic pressure at bay for a time. Every now
and then the Soviets would just release a dissident from the gulags. The
former official also noted the Soviets would sometimes arrest a bunch of
dissidents just before an important US diplomatic visit - specifically to
have some prisoners to release, thus in effect creating their own
bargaining chips. The pressure would ease off for a while until it built
up again and they would release another poor dissident or two. On and on
it went…..and of course the Soviet Union never eased up on human rights
violations or permitted multi party elections. No, of course the old
communists clung to power until they had it eventually wrenched from their
iron grip.

With Vietnam, it’s the same ol’ story. On the eve of getting into the
World Trade Organization (WTO), we see Hanoi up to its old tricks,
releasing a dissident or two. While some thousands of prisoners are due to
be released, how many of them are actual political prisoners? How many are
indigenous Montagnards (who have been electric shock tortured)? According
to Vo Van Ai of the Buddhist Information service in Paris there are only
four prisoners of conscience, out of 5,313 and he describes this
“piecemeal amnesty” as a “propaganda exercise”. Kok Ksor of the Montagnard
Foundation states “he has serious doubts the Vietnamese would release the
350 Montagnards currently held in prison”. Mr. Ksor should know, as he has
a brother currently serving a seven year jail sentence for merely trying
to flee the country as a refugee. His 80 year old mother too had her ribs
broken by police during an interrogation.

As to the fate of Mr. Ksor’s people the Montagnards, the indigenous
peoples of Vietnam’s central highlands, these people were America’s loyal
ally during the Vietnam War. At any one time some 40,000 Montagnards
served with the US military during the Vietnam War. Yet, how many people
know that after 1975 the vengeful communists commenced a decade’s long
policy of land exploitation, Christian religious repression, torture,
killings and imprisonment of the Montagnards? Today in September 2006 the
US State Department has continued to maintain Vietnam on the “country of
particular concern” (CPC) watch list of countries that are the worst
violators of religious freedom. In fact the entire Montagnard population
faces continual repression by security forces who commit regular human
rights violations against them.

Yes, a lure has been cast out to the United States, just prior to
Congress’ vote on Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) scheduled with
Vietnam in September 2006. A lure to catch the US Congress. PNTR you see
is a stepping stone for entry into the WTO and the proponents of PNTR will
argue economic engagement is the key to Vietnam’s development. They will
say ‘we must engage economically with Vietnam and this will assist Vietnam
in changing its repressive ways”. This is what the US trade lobby argues,
and to be fair they have a point. However, Vietnam’s northern neighbor
(and communist big brother) China, has spoiled the “miraculous cure all”
remedy of economic engagement. The United States indeed granted PNTR to
China some years ago and it didn’t result in any great reforms. No,
judging from a comment by Senator Charles Grassley, Chairman of the Senate
Finance Committee, one can see that China has actually ruined the image of
economic engagement. Senator Grassley stated in a Senate Hearing on PNTR
negotiations for Vietnam that, "We need to make sure that we aren’t played
for a sucker in the case of Vietnam, as we have been with China."

The question should really be, how does the United States do things
differently to ensure Vietnam does indeed bring about the promised human
rights reforms? Admittedly this is a dilemma as Vietnam has a history of
diplomatic trickery and is one of the most corrupt nations in the world.
But we can safely say that outright appeasement will not work. Once
Vietnam gains PNTR and accedes to the WTO, there are few if any sticks
left to wield against Hanoi. But such outright appeasement is a real
danger and possible reality. Recently in July 2006 Chris Seiple of the
religious based think tank, Global Institute for Engagement testified in
front of the US Senate Finance Committee stating “we should send a strong
and unambiguous message to Vietnam’s leaders that we are willing to work
with them. Establishing PNTR and lifting CPC sends that signal.”

In other words, the onus is on the United States to appease the
oppressors, (i.e.: we reward Vietnam, for doing something they should
never have been doing in the first place). It is difficult to comprehend
whether Mr. Seiple’s organization has starry eyed ideals or simply wants
to protect their future visas to Vietnam. (I hesitate to claim they are on
Hanoi’s payroll). Perhaps I just read their title wrong, was it Global
Institute for “appeasement”? No, of course I read it right and yet, as I
read it again each time I have clear visions of Neville Chamberlain coming
back from Nazi Germany waving a paper, “peace in our time”.

In Vietnam’s case the United States needs to engage with Vietnam, but not
in a weak position on human rights. Now is the time to stand strong with
the dissidents, time to show courage and state loud and clear that the
United States will not tolerate repressive governments in lieu of trade
deals. It is time for the United States to give hope to the embattled
Montagnard population inside Vietnam, its former ally, to give hope to all
Vietnamese citizens. Engagement yes, but not appeasement. The old chain
smoking communists in power in Hanoi, they know how to play the West and
will resist and lie all the way. They will never change, they will only
die off, but unfortunately for those who desire freedom in Vietnam, in
particularly the younger generation of people in Vietnam, the old
communists will just not die off fast enough.

Scott Johnson is Advisor to the Montagnard Foundation.
http://www.montagnard-foundation.org/

© Copyright 2002-2007 AFAR