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Who are the Japanese (Part II)
Lee Wha Rang
12/9/2004

Prehistoric Korea
By about 25,000 ago, the harsh climate had decimated the homos and only small tribes survived in warm pockets along Lake Baikal and other bodies of water in Siberia, India, China, Africa and the Near East. In addition, some tribes survived in the Altai mountains. These homos are called the "paleoasiatics", who were stone-tool users. Later these Peleo-Neolithic tribes were overwhelmed by Bronze-Age tribes from the Altaic region.

Lake Baikal is thought to be the oldest lake of the world (about 30 million years old) and it is fed by over three hundred rivers and more importantly by hot springs, which shielded Baikal from glaciation. It was an oasis for various life forms during the Ice Ages. Lake Baikal is the the 'Jewel' of Siberia. It is the largest body of fresh water in the world and its surface area is about one third of South Korea. The lake sits on a large rift in the earth crust which is still expanding at about 2 cm per year. Most of the 2,500+ species of plants and animals of Lake Baikal are not found anywhere else.

The rich plants and animal life in and near Lake Baikal had kept our forefathers alive amidst of harsh frozen desert that surrounded the Lake 10,000 or so ago. Today, the Briat Autonomous Region of the Russian Republic control Lake Baikal. The Briat people's culture, language and physique are strikingly similar to those of the Korean people.

As the glaciations receded in Europe, the sea level rose gradually and by 15,000 year ago, the Sundaland (East Asia Lowlands) became submerged and their inhabitants were forced to migrate to higher-elevation lands of India, Indochina, China, Japan, and Korea.

The first Korean nation, Han-gook (also pronounced whan-gook, 桓國), was established in 7,197 BC and lasted 3,301 years. According to an archive recently discovered (桓檀古記), this nation was made of 12 tribes in the region of Lake Baikal in Siberia. About 5000-10,000 years ago, the climate in Siberia began to cool down and people from this nation began to move out in several directions. One group, sumiri (수밀이 須密爾 -- called the Sumerians by the Westerners), migrated to Mesopotamia and established the Ur, Urk, Lagash, Umma and other city states. The Sumerians had dark hair and share a common linguistic origin with the Koreans.

The king of Han-gook dispatched about 3,000 colonists to the area around Mt. Baiktu, which was inhabited by primitive tribes - the Tiger and the Bear tribes. The Han colonists subdued these tribes and established a new nation, Bai-dal (배달국 倍達國, also called 구리 九黎 and 한웅 桓雄 in Chinese chronicles) in 3,898 BC. This new nation occupied much of Manchuria and expanded into China: at its peak, Bai-dal occupied Habook, Hanam, Shantung, Gangso, Ahnwhi, and Julgang provinces of China. Its culture flourished: creation of 'Chinese' characters, codification of the Oriental medicine, advances in farming methods, and other innovations commonly attributed to the Chinese. The Bai-dal kingdom lasted 1565 years under 18 kings.

Go-Chosun (also called Dangun Chosun) followed Bai-dal in 2333 BC and lasted 2096 years. It was the most powerful nation in Asia of its era but it is rarely mentioned in history books because Japanese and Chinese historians shy away from glorifying the Korean people. Fortunately, Soviet-era academicians have established with certainty the veracity of Go-Chosun, this nation did in fact exist, and the new generation of Korean historians - untainted by Uncle Tomism that prevails among the 'senior' Korean historians who were educated by the Japanese - have picked up where the Soviets had left. According to the Soviet historians, Go-Chosen was made of three regions (sam-han - the three Hans 韓) - Jin-han in Manchuria, Ma-han in Korea, and Bun-han in the area around Beijing. Jin-han was ruled directly by the Go-Chosun kings but Ma-han and Bun-han were ruled by viceroys appointed by the kings.

When the fortune of Go-Chosun began to nose-dive, its subjects rebelled: the Mongols and the Huns left the domain and began to move westward. The Huns made all the way to Europe and survive today in Hungary. The word Hun came from the Korean word 'han' (한 韓, 汗). Some of the Huns settled in Turkey. Facial reconstructions from Hun skulls show facial features that are Korean.

Go-Chosun was followed by North Buyo (북부여 - later became Koguryo) and other smaller states. In time, three kingdoms - Koguryo, Silla, and Baikje - emerged. Of the three, Koguryo was the largest and the most powerful. The Koguryo kings attempted to restore the glory days of King Chi Wu of Guri (aka Bai-dal), whose domain extended as far west as Tibet. It is believed that Koguryo was originally called Ko-Guri - the Higher Guri nation.

The three Korean nations fought amongst themselves. Baikje and Japan attacked Silla, while Silla and China attacked Koguryo. After centuries of warfare, Koguryo fell to China. The Chinese victors took some 30,000 Koguryo citizens as slaves, many of whom were sent to slave labor camps in Burma. Today, there are several villages in the Golden Triangle that are inhabited by the descendents of the captives. These 'forgotten' Koreans speak archaic Korean and retain much of the Koguryo customs.

Map: Koguryo occupied much of today's Manchuria and part of Siberia. Since its formation in 57 BC. Koguryo became the most powerful nation in the Far East until it was toppled by the Silla-China alliance in 668 AD. Gaya (Kara in Japanese), being the closest to Japan, was the gateway to Japan. The first emperor of Japan came from Gaya.

The remnants of Koguryo people, led by General Dae Jo-yiung (대조영 大祚榮), formed a new nation called Bal-hae (698-926 AD - 渤海) in Manchuria and Siberia. Bal-hea excelled in deep-sea navigation and had a powerful navy. Bal-hea made Japan one of its subjugated nations and protectorates. At least 47 official records of Bal-hae and Japan contacts exist today. Bal-hae navy and merchant ships sailed from Wonsan, Vladivostok and other ports, and reached as far as the Philippines.

The Bal-hae army waged wars against the Chinese and regained the Shantung region and the Pacific Siberian region. But Bal-hae was defeated by the Chinese in 926 AD. Silla conquered Bakje and unified Korea, which was reduced by that time to the Korean peninsula south of the Daedong River, a tiny fraction of the mighty Korean nation of Guri and Ko-guri. Silla and its successor nation Koryo waged war against China and regained the Korean land south of the Yalu river and the Kan-do north of the Tuman River. Several attempts to regain Manchuria and Siberia failed

The Yayoi and Yamato Mass Immigration from Korea
Around 400 BC, a sudden change occurred in the Japanese culture. The Neolithic Jomon culture was overwhelmed by Iron Age culture from Korea. Iron tools and irrigated rice fields with canals, dams, banks, paddies, and rice residues have been uncovered by archeologists. This Iron Age culture of Japan is called the Yayoi, named after a district of Tokyo where in 1884 pottery similar to contemporary South Korean pottery was unearthed. "Many other elements of the new Yayoi culture were unmistakably Korean and previously foreign to Japan, including bronze objects, weaving, glass beads, and styles of tools and houses." (Diamond 1998)

Japan's population increased by an astonishing 7,000% during the Yayoi period. It is estimated that the Jomon people numbered less than 75,000 in about 400 BC. Korean farmers found the Japanese islands with warmer climates and abundant water a land of golden opportunity, and millions of them crossed the Tzushima Strait to Kyushu, and from there, to the other islands of Japan. The Koreans brought Korean farming practices, culture, language, and genes. The Koreans overwhelmed the stone age Jomon people.

Another major and sudden change occurred during 300-700 AD - the Yamato Period. Archeological excavations dug up large tombs with lavish burial goods and frescos, which are identical to those found in Koguryo tombs. During this period, many nobles from Koguryo, Gaya and Baikje fled to Japan when their kingdoms collapsed. Some Korean historians believe that some of the Korean kingdoms ruled over Japan during the Yamato period. Some historians believe that Puyo warriors from Korea invaded Japan and established the Yamato period of domination of Japan by Korea.

Como (2000) shows that Buddhism was introduced to Japan by monks from Silla, and Silla scholars, merchants, and military held influential positions in Japan. Evidence exists that a small group of immigrants from Siberia arrived in Japan via Hokkaido some 1.500 years ago, but this "Amur" group left little legacy.

Linguistics
It is true that today's Korean has little in common with today's Japanese. The Japanese and Ainu languages have little in common and it is logical to assume that the Japanese language came from offshore. Where did it come from? Riley (2003) has made an extensive research on the common origin of the two languages and has established that in fact the Japanese language has evolved from the language spoken in Go-Chosen and Buyo in about 2,500 years ago and later in Koguryo in the first millennium. Silla united Korea in 676 AD and the Korean language evolved from the language of Silla.

Riley employed well established linguistic methods to correlate Japano and Proto-Korean. She went back into a period of time far beyond historical documents to dig out the prehistoric languages. For example, many borrowed terms can be eliminated by using non-cultural vocabulary such as body parts, natural objects, plants, animals, pronouns, and lower numerals. In contrast, technological vocabulary such as words for horse trappings and farm instruments are most likey borrowed from an alien language.

Riley concludes ".. evidence from a variety of fields in order to strengthen the hypothesis that Japonic and Korean are linguistically genetically related to one another. Non-linguistic evidence supports the hypothesis that the Japonic language was introduced into the Japanese Archipelago approximately 2,500 years ago over a thousand year period, where a culturally and technologically advanced group began migrating into the Japanese Archipelago from the Korean Peninsula through Northern Kyushu. A constant and steady influx of Continental culture, language, and people, resulted in the near-complete extinction of the original language."

Riley examined 8th Century Japanese texts and 15th Century Korean texts, expanding upon the work of Samuel Martin who published in 1966 the first comprehensive reconstruction of Proto-Koreo-Japonic, including sound correspondences and a list of reconstructed proto-segments. Silla was founded by the Saro tribe of Chinhan (a substate of Go-Chosun) and the Saro dialect became the official language of Silla (the Middle Korean language), which is extant now but can be reconstructed from place names and surnames in the archives of Silla. The number of cognates found for the Middle Korean and the 8th century Nara dialects is significant.

Genetics and Biology
As in the case of pottery and other artifacts, DNA, skeletal, and dental features show a population cline: that is Korean traits are most prominent in Kyushu, the closest site to Korea and they taper off further south and north.

This cline is also seen in Japanese dogs and field mice. (Riley 2002) Studies on canine breeds in Japan show that one breed came from Southeast Asia some 10,000 - 12,000 years ago and that a second breed came from Korea 1,700 - 2,300 years from the Korean peninsula. Mitochondria1 DNA data from wild mice show the same distribution with dogs.

Skeletons of Jomon and Yayoi people have been examined and detailed DNA studies have been made in recent years. Most Jomon and Yayoi skeletons are readily distinguishable. The Jomon people were shorter, with relatively longer forearms and lower legs, more wide-set eyes, shorter and wider faces, and much more pronounced facial topography, with strikingly raised browridges, noses, and nose bridges, while the Yayoi people averaged an inch or two taller, with close-set eyes, high and narrow faces, and flat browridges and noses. (Diamond 1998)

Studies of teeth show two distinct patterns - Sundadonty and Sinodonty. The former represents Southeast Asians, Micronesians, and Polynesiansn and the latter Koreans and Manchus. The former is preeminent among pure-blood Ainu and Okinawans. The teeth evidence supports the thesis that "ancient demic diffusion commencing with the Yayoi era at about 300 B.C. when an immigrant population from continental Asia entered the archipelago in north Kyushu and expanded eastward, assimilating the aboriginal inhabitants". (Riley 2002)

Kojiki, Nihonki, and Silla Archives
Riley (2002) states that the Kojiki and the Nihonki, the primary Japanese archives, point strongly to the Korean origin of the Japanese Empire. Kojiki was compiled from earlier archives and tells the story of the colonization of the Japanese islands by gods, and the story of Jirnrnu, the first emperor and his descendents until 641 AD. Kojiki was completed in 712 AD and Nihonki in 720 AD.

The authors of the Japanese archives attempted to hide the origin of the founding rulers of Japan by shrouding them in mythology. Thus the rulers came from Heaven or arrived on a giant turtle from a far place unmentioned. The authors had done the best to hide the true origin of the founding fathers of Yamato. The archives depict the life and death of two sets of gods - one from Heaven and the other native (Korean immigrants vs. the Jomon people).

Amaterasu sends her brother to rule over Japan but he ends up in Silla for some reason, and Amaterasu sends her grandson Niniki to rule Japan. According to Riley (2002), Amaterasu was most likely a shamaness from Korea. Shamanism began in Korea and spread to Japan, becoming Japan's national religion, Shintoism. The foundation myth of Japan was based loosely on actual events and people - except the actual events occurred about 1,000 years later.

The first mention of Japan appears in the Chinese archives in 297 AD. The Japanese nation was referred to as Wa (dwarf), ruled by a female shaman by the name of Himiko. Wa was a nation of more than one hundred squabbling tribes. Somehow this chaotic nation turned into a strong united nation by the reign of Emperor Keitai (507-531 AD), thanks to the influx of a large number of "horseriding" warriors from Korea. (Douglas 1978)

According to the Silla Chronicle, Queen Hamiko (卑彌乎) sent an emissary to Korea in 173 AD, and about at this time, her son married a daughter of King Kim Su-ro, from which Niniki (邇邇藝) was born. Queen Hamiko and Amaterasu (天照大神) are believed to be one and same. Japanese archives claim that Niniki's grandson became the first emperor of Japan - Jinmu Tenno, but Silla archives show that Jinmu was in fact a grandson of King Kim Su-ro, Lee Pa-ri (伊波禮 I-Wa-Re in Japanese). Strangely, Kojiki mentions that Jimmo came from Korea and established a base in Kyushu, from which he advanced to other islands of Japan. .

Conclusion
Scientific studies in different fields - dialectology, archaeology, anthropology, genetics, geology, and histology - indicate that proto-Koreans began to colonize the Japanese islands some 2,500 years ago. The immigrants from Korea pushed aside the stone-age Jomon inhabitants. Silla maintained a close tie with Japan but after the fall of Silla, Japan and Korea evolved relatively isolated from each other.

References:
Chon, Chon Ho (1997). Kitora Tomb Originates in Koguryo Murals. Retrieved from Web October 21, 2004, http://210.145.168.243/pk/035th_issue/98032502.htm -- Japanese archaeologists found two sacred creatures in the stone chamber and a chart, the sun and the moon, on the ceiling of the Kitora Ancient Tomb in Asukamura, Nara prefecture, after completing with a tiny high-resolution camera the investigation of the mural which is believed to date from the seventh or eight century. The artifacts are believed to be of Koguryo origin.

Como, Michael (2000). Silla Immigrants and the Early Shotoku Cult: Ritual and the Poetics of Power in Early Yamato. PhD Thesis, Stanford University -- My research into the topic, however, has convinced me that the above model and the body of scholarship upon which it is based contain several intrinsic flaws that have distorted our understanding of the religious situation of seventh century Japan. For the rest of this introduction I hope to elucidate where those flaws lie and how they have influenced our broader understanding of Japanese religion as wel1. I will then set forth the methodology I have chosen to use for my own study of the Shstoku cult, along with a brief account of my own agenda and gods. (pdf, 7 MB)

Crystal, Ellie (2004). Ancient Japan - Retrieved from Web October 21, 2004, http://www.crystalinks.com/japan.html -- The Paleolithic Period in Japan is variously dated from 30,000 to 10,000 years ago, although the argument has been made for a Lower Paleolithic culture prior to 35,000 BC. Nothing certain is known of the culture of the period, though it seems likely that people lived by hunting and gathering, used fire, and made their homes either in pit-type dwellings or in caves. No bone or horn artifacts of the kind associated with this period in other areas of the world have yet been found in Japan. Since there was no knowledge whatsoever of pottery, the period is referred to as the Pre-Ceramic era.

Diamond, Jared (1998). The Japanese Roots Discover, June 1998, Vol. 19 - Just who are the Japanese? Where did they come from and when? The answer are difficult to come by, though not impossible--the real problem is that the Japanese themselves may not want to know.

Douglas, John H. (1978). Who are the Japanese? Science News, June 3, 1978, Vol. 113 Issue 22, p364 -- Suggestions that the Japanese Emperor may be descended from mounted Korean conquerors have made archeology a hot political subject.

Dutch, Steven. (2003). History of Global Plate Motions Retrieved from Web, October 22, 2004, http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/platetec/plhist94.htm#750my

Holy Kojigi and Holy Nihongi - The myths are in fact based on actual historical events recorded in ancient Korean and Chinese archives. For example, Japan's Ahmaderasu's (天照大神)) son married a princess of Gaya, a Korean kingdom closest to Japan. The couple's son became Emperor Niniki (瓊瓊杵). Gaya, Puyo (which later became Koguryo, Balhae, and Koryo), and Baikje colonized Japan and some of the Japanese emperors were in fact Gaya or Baikje Kings.

Muchan (1998). The Origin of the Japanese People and Language. Retrieved from Web October 21, 2004, http://users.tmok.com/~tumble/jpp/japor.html -- We can read the oldest written form of Japanese from the 7th century. Since that time, the Japanese language has changed, but we can see the continuity very clearly, and we can safely conclude that this is basically the same language that is spoken now on the same islands. Calling this oldest known form "Old Japanese", this message is about the time before that, how this language was formed and where the people who spoke this language came from--about the origin and prehistory of the Japanese people and language.

The Ouchis - Horseriders on a princely throne -- A Hungarian history of the Korean Emperors of Japan, the Ouchis Clan.

Petit, J.R., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, G. Delaygue, N.I. Barkov, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 2000. Historical isotopic temperature record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change.Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A. http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/temp/vostok/jouz_tem.htm

Riley, Barbara E., (2003). Aspects of the Genetic Relationship of the Korean and Japanese Languages. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii -- Japonic and Korean are linguistically genetically related to one another. Non-linguistic evidence supports the hypothesis that the Japonic language was introduced into the Japanese Archipelago approximately 2,500 years ago over a thousand year period, where a culturally and technologically advanced group began migrating into the Japanese Archipelago from the Korean Peninsula through Northern Kyushu. A constant and steady influx of Continental culture, language, and people, resulted in the near-complete extinction of the original language. (pdf, 3.6 MB)

Smith, Tony (2004). Ice Age Civilizations. Retrieved from Web October 22, 2004. http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/iceciv.html .

Söding, Emanuel (2004). The Ocean Drilling Stratigraphic Network established by GEOMAR, Research Center for Marine Geosciences / Kiel and the Geological Institute of the University Bremen. Retrieved from Web October 21, 2004, http://www.odsn.de/odsn/index.html

Strongrivers, Robert (2002). The Black Islanders Retrieved from Web October 21, 2004, http://members.tripod.com/pointingbird/lostfeatherintl/id59.htm -- The early inhabitants of Japan were Negroids.

Taira, Asahiko (2001). The Tectonic Evolution of the Japanese Island Arc System Annual Review of Earth Planet Science, 29:109-34, 2001. Growth of the Japanese arc system, which has mainly taken place along the continental margin of Asia since the Permian, is the result of subduction of the ancient Pacific ocean floor. Backarc basin formation in the Tertiary shaped the present day arc configuration. (pdf, 1.7 MB)

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