[The following is the tenth and final excerpt taken from Kim Young Sik's paper "The left-right confrontation in Korea – Its origin."]
I remember the day when my brother was beaten savagely, while another brother of mine was dying, by a mob of Communists in Kapsan, North Korea. It was a long, long ago in 1946. The mob attack was my personal version of “Free City Incident”, and my one-man “anti-Communist crude” began on that unforgettable day.
My father was a Communist revolutionary in the 1920s. He was active in farm reforms and forced to flee after instigating a peasant revolt. On his way to Manchuria, he was taken ill in Kapsan. While recuperating, he received an inspiration: “The best way to help the farmers is to give them cheap farms. And the best way to create cheap farms is to turn barren lands into rich farm lands by building irrigation canals.”
But where would he get the money and expertise for digging canals? The Japanese. The Japanese government was in need of foods to feed its huge bloated army and encouraged Korean farmers to emigrate to Manchuria where huge tracks of virgin lands were abound. The Japanese also gave out grants for land developments. My father applied for and received a sizable grant.
My father bought barren lands and mountains for a nominal fee from the Japanese. The Japanese gave him construction machines and dynamites – for free. He built a network of canals that diverted water from the Huchung River and turned virgin lands into rich rice paddies and cornfields.
He rented out his farms for a small cut of the crops of rice, corns, barleys, vegetables, and pumpkins. At every harvest time, the farmers brought ox cartloads of food to his overflowing granary. He sold the rice to the Japanese and sold the rest on the markets in Kapsan and other hungry towns. Money flowed in like water. He gave us silver chopsticks and gold seals. He gave each of his sons a mountain. We lived in a large mansion and had a live-in governess. Life was good for us – until the liberation.
On February 10, 1946, Kim Il Sung proclaimed: 'Land for those who till it' (to-ji-nun nong-ming eh ke): and “No work, no eat (il-haji ahnnun ja-nun mukji mara)”. My father did not consider himself a landlord because he did not inherit any land and he did not exploit anyone. All he had done was to create farms where none had existed before. The farmers should be thankful for his farms, he thought.
But the Communists saw it differently and labeled my father a “pro-Japanese reactionary landlord” and talked my father’s tenant farmers into a ‘denunciation’ march. One day, several scores of Communists and the farmers gathered in front of our gate and demanded to talk to my father. At the very moment when the mob showed up, my father was cradling his second son, his favorite, who was about to die. My parents were weeping aloud – repeating, “My son – don’t die!” My father was in no shape or mood to talk to the mob. The mob got angry and began to push on the locked gate trying to force it open. My eldest brother, a people’s militia officer, went out to meet the chanting mob on my father’s behalf, and the mob began to beat him with fists and clubs.
My little sister and I, each armed with a kitchen knife, stood behind the gate ready to fight the mob. An eleven-year-old boy and a seven-year-old girl were ready to combat a mob of Communists. I was not afraid of the mob. I hated them. We saw many familiar faces in the crowd – the very same people who used to treat us like a prince and a princess, the same people whose children my mother helped feed and cloth. They looked the same but they were changed people. They became Communists over night and wanted to kill us.
To make a long story short, an armed unit of people’s militia came and dispersed the mob. The militias, friends of my brother’s, brandished Japanese hand-grenades and threatened to kill them all. The mob took the message and ran away. We were saved in the nick of time. After this incident, we were strongly urged to leave Kapsan. My father hired a trucker to take us to Hamhung where he owned several houses and where he knew several Communist leaders. We would be safe there.
On one cold winter night, we got in an old dilapidated Japanese truck. The truck was powered by steams generated in a wood-burning stove – a contraption common during the waning days of the Japanese Empire. We left everything behind – our home, our lands, our mountains, our books, our friends and our pleasant memories of the place we grew up.
I swore that I would come back some day and get even with the Communists; that I would take back my home, my land, my mountain and my pleasant childhood memories. I am sure that Hong Bom Do, Ji Jung Chun, Kim Jwa Jin, and other nationalists had similar thoughts on their mind as they retreated from the Free City, leaving behind their wounded and dead comrades on June 27, 1921.
When Rhee’s army occupied Hamhung in 1950, I joined the Hamhung Students Army and volunteered for a mission to Kapsan. I believed that, at last, my dream had come true – I was going to Kapsan and square things. But, the fortune of war changed suddenly and we were forced to flee to South Korea. Undaunted, I dreamed of returning to Kapsan. I dreamed and dreamed every day – until the armistice was signed in 1953. The Armistice shattered my dream and I realized that I wouldn’t be going back to Kapsan anytime soon – if ever.
A sage wise man in Seoul told me to forget the past and look ahead, and that there was no use in crying over spilt milk. He told me to find a new life in a new world. That is how I came to the United States – a new world – in pursuit of a new life. There were times when I was ready to give up and call it quit. I have suffered horribly from the traumas in my early years in Korea. I had persistent insomnia and cold-sweat nightmares, broken marriages, broken friendships, sudden rages, melancholia, and so on – all symptoms of post-trauma stress (PTS).
I know that the anti-Communist and anti-anti-Communist hysteria that has been keeping Korea divided are symptoms of post trauma stress on a national scale. The Korean people as a nation have been suffering from PTS. The best cure for PTS is to find the root cause of the stress; and the best way to find the root cause is to find the true facts. Once we discover the whole truth, it will become easy for us to let bygones be bygones. We cannot bring back the dead; we cannot undo the past wrongs; we cannot re-cross the Rubicon.
Several decades ago, I learned to see things from the other side’s point of view, and today, I accept that lands should be for those who work them, and that those who toil to raise crops ought to keep them. I have no more desire to reclaim my home, my land, or my mountain in Kapsan. They should belong to the community, to the people – not to me.
I feel no animosity towards that Communist mob, which attacked my family in 1946; I understand where they came from. If I were in their shoes, I might have done the same.
There is no question that both North Korea and South Korea have changed over the years and that there exist much less animosity between the two. But Sunshine or not, the armies from both sides are ready to fight each other. The powder keg is still there and the fuse is still smoldering. All it takes is a spark to ignite the keg, and the Korean Peninsula will go up in flames.
The power keg has grown large since 1950 – it contains biochemical and nuclear warheads, and no sound-minded Korean leader would advocate another war in Korea – because, win or lose, the Korean Peninsula will turn into an unhealthy place to live in a new war. There should be no more talk of “lunch in Pyongyang and dinner in Sinyju” or ”The South Korean people will rise up and welcome Kim Jong Il.”
I feel deep in my bones that the spirit of August 15, 1945 is slowly returning to the Land of Morning Calm. I believe that the Roh Moo Hyon administration will usher in an era of true democracy, of Korean nationalism, and less dependence on foreign powers. We Koreans must work together and iron out our problems with friendly persuasions amongst ourselves. We must learn to see beyond our dunghills – beyond the evils of bigotry. We Koreans must learn to be proud of our heritage and stop worshipping or imitating foreign cultures.
I believe someday – probably not in my lifetime - Korea will be reunited. It is time for the old Cold War warriors to relinquish power and let the younger Koreans, unaffected by the old wars and vendetta, to work things out in peace. It is time for those of us who have taken up guns and spilt bloods to point the way to peace.
Kim Young Sik is editor of Korea WebWeekly.
Miscellaneous Notes and References
Kim Gyong Chun:
1) http://www.independence.or.kr/media_data/thesis/1998/199809.html Research on Kim Gyong Chun, A Korean Nationalist in Russia" by Prof. Park Whan, Suwon University.
2) http://chaos.suwon.ac.kr/~hwpark/rusia/rusiapa/kckim01.htm A revised version of the above document.
3) http://http://chaos.suwon.ac.kr/~hwpark/rusia/rusiapa/kckim02.htm Kim Gyong Chun Family Interviews by Prof. Park Whan
4) http://www.dalgu.net/55815/w-29.htm The West Route Army
5) http://khmindong.or.kr/sinheung/found.htm Sinhung Military Academy
6) http://mnum.mokpo.ac.kr/cspark/³í¹®/Soando.htm Anti-Japanese Movement in So-ahn Region, Prof. Park Chan Sung, Mokpo University
7) http://www.hanmiinfo.co.kr/official4.htm Korean Nationalism - history
8) http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/jucheon/column4-1.htm Rhee Syngman in America
9) http://members.tripod.lycos.co.kr/icanzeus/main.htm Korean Nationalist Leaders
1) http://vision.taegu-e.ac.kr/~kskim/natlflower.html Korean National Flower
2) http://vision.taegu-e.ac.kr/~kskim/mugung90.html Moo-goong-hwa and Korean Nationalism
For information on Gen. Kim Jwa Jin, see http://soback.kornet.nm.kr/~sk9505/inmool/cho02.html
For information on Hong Sa Ik, see http://my.dreamwiz.com/pcw0905/hisdata/hise/his30.html
The General Sherman Incident:
1) Kojong Silrok contains the Yi Dynasty's official reports on General Sherman.
2) The Sherman Incidentr: Official Documents
3) The French Invastion of 1866
4) Park Gyu Su Memoir - Pyongahn governor at the time of the Sherman Incident.
5) The Truth About the General Sherman Incident
6) US Navy investigation reports are preserved at National Archives and Records Administration, Publication M89, "Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy from Commanding Officers of Squadrons ("Squadron Letters") 1841-1886", rolls 251 and 252.
For information on the 1871 US invasion, see http://www.shinmiyangyo.org/ Sin-mi Yang-yo: 1871 US Korean Campaign, webmaster Thomas Duvernay
For information on the Oppert incident, see http://www.kimsoft.com/2000/oppert.htm Ernst Oppert's Kingdom of Corea:
Grave-Robbing in the Name of God - by Lee Wha Rang.
For information on pro-Japanese Koreans, see http://banmin.or.kr/n_pds/gallery/gallmain.htm Banmin archives on pro-Japanese traitors.
For miscellaneous Korean historical documents in English, see: http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/1953/ Steve Carroll's Unofficial Korean War Reference Library.
http://soback.kornet.net/~sk9505/inmool/cho23.html Lee Wan Yong, Korea's #1 Traitor
Yi Dong Whi:
1) http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/jucheon/column4-2.htm Early Korean Communists in China and Russia
2) http://my.netian.com/~istart/corea77.htm Korean Independence Movement
3) http://my.netian.com/~rstclub/k_history_02-4.htm Why was the Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai?
4) http://www.independence.or.kr/unisql/dispatcher/indeman/indeman_detail.html?id=p0049 Yi Dong Whi, Presidential medal winner, 1995.
5) http://www2.nhcc.go.kr/cgi-bin/xdetail?ssid=074430&dbid=/russia/web/russia&rsid=1&crno=5 Yi Dong Whi's Korean Communist Party
6) http://goindol.new21.net/history/ Korean History Lectures
7) http://www-2.knu.ac.kr/~history/study/dapsa/9901/9901-10.htm People's army and Yi Dong Whi
1) http://www.ihs21.org/photo/ga3-5.htm Modern History Selected Photo 200
2) http://user.chollian.net/~limpid7/cul/c24.html Kim Alexandra
3) http://mail.suwon.ac.kr/~hwpark/rusia/rusiare1.htm Resources on Koreans in Russia
4) http://www1.suwon.ac.kr/~hwpark/rusia/rusianew/ak.htm Kim Alexandra Biography
5) http://plaza.new21.org/rusplaza.htm Stalin and Korean Nationalists, Prof. Kang Won Sik
6) http://edu03.joongang.co.kr/users/minisha/mainmid25.htm Overseas Koreans
American troops in Siberia
1) http://www.thehistorynet.com/MilitaryHistory/articles/1998/1098_text.htm#top On November 11, 1918, World War I officially ended, but for American troops in the Russian town of Toulgas, the war was just beginning.
2) http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/p_bears.htm The Story of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia
3) http://www.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww_one/memoir/aef_cong.htm Allied Expeditionary Force POWs, Siberia - 1919
4) http://www.friends-partners.org/oldfriends/mes/books/fraser/siberia.htm The Real Siberia
5) http://library.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918/archangl.html 17 July, 1918 U.S. Participation in the Archangel Expedition
6) http://www.militaria.com/8th/WW1/siberia.html American Troops in Siberia 1918-1920
7) http://www.naval-history.net/WW1CampaignsRNBolshevik.htm BRITISH-BOLSHEVIK NAVY ACTIONS during the Russian Revolution 1918-1919
8) http://www.uwosh.edu/home_pages/faculty_staff/earns/rrsc.html WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE: THE RUSSIAN RAILWAY SERVICE CORPS IN NAGASAKI
9) http://www.nara.gov/guide/rg395.html Records of United States Army Overseas Operations and Commands, 1898-1942
10) http://www.umich.edu/~bhl/bhl/mhchome/polarb.htm The Polar Bear Expedition American Intervention in Northern Russia, 1918-1919
11) http://www.is.rhodes.edu/modus/97/1.html American Intervention in Russia: A Study of Wilsonian Foreign Policy
12) http://www.friends-partners.org/newfriends/fp/irkutsk/fed/transsib.html Trans-Siberian Railway in the world history An American railroad man east of the Urals, 1918-1922.
13) http://www.trotsky.net/works/1919-mil/ch03.htm The Military Writings of LEON TROTSKY
14) http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/jucheon/column4-1.htm Rhee Syngman in America - includes information on Park Young Man (박용만), the Korean-American spy for the US and Japanese in Siberia.
15) http://www.cheolwon.kangwon.kr/culture/culture_tour_pakryongman.html 박용만(朴容萬)
Kim-Hae Kim family origin
1) http://www.genealogy.co.kr/kim/bonkimhea22.htm 김해(金海) family tree.
2) http://genealogy.co.kr/etc2/song/kimhea.htm Kim Hae family origin
4) http://www.tgmuseum.org/exhi/gogo/041.html Golden Age of Kim-hae
5) http://www.hongik.ac.kr/~kayakim/knbaekka.htm Baik-je history
6) http://earth.interpia98.net/~bitinfo/local.htm Family Origins
Free City Incident
1) http://members.tripod.lycos.co.kr/~agentguy/c54.htm The Free City (Black River" Incident)
2) http://kangssi.or.kr/munhun/dogrip/gwangbok.htm Korean Armies
3) http://myhome.naver.com/yjh116/dldirl.htm Famous Koreans - Pictures
4) http://www.independence.or.kr/exhibition/1995/1995-079.htm Korean Independence Hall
Yiyoldang and Kim Won Bong
1) http://1109.co.kr/home/history/history_korea/uiyuldan.htm Korean History: Yiyoldang
2) The Song of Ariran - A Korean Communist in Chinese Revolution - Nym Wales and Kim San (real name, Jang Ji Rak), Ramparts Press, San Francisco, 1941; a memoir of a revolutionary patriot - 1900 to 1935.
3) http://www.dalgu.net/55815/w-48.htm Yiyoldang Bombing Mission
4) http://www.dalgu.net/55815/total.htm Korean Nationalists Info
5) http://mnum.mokpo.ac.kr/cspark/lecture/persons/김원봉.htm Kim Wong Bong bio
6) http://user.chollian.net/~fly12/2904.htm Life Story of Yak San, Kim Wong Bong
7) http://my.netian.com/~turnleft/Review/review2000/The-Anarchists.htm The Anarchists, a documentary film
8) http://soback.kornet.net/~sk9505/inmool/cho13.html Shin Chae Ho, Korean anarchism theorist.
Early Korean Communist movements
1) Communism in Korea - The Movement - Robert A. Scalapino and Chong Sik Lee, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1972; includes information on anti-Japanese movements during the first three decades of the 20th century.
2) Edgar Snow's China - Louis Wheeler Snow, Random House, New York, 1981; an eye witness history of the modern China with a large selection of rare photographs.
3) The Origins of The Korean War - Bruce Cumings, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1981. This masterpiece on Korea (1945 - 1947) details US Army's continuance of the Japanese colonial rule using the Japanese personnel and Korean traitors.
4) Kim Il Sung - The North Korean Leader - Dae Sook Suh, Columbia University Press, NY 1988: an authoritative treatise on Kim Il Sung's biography with extensive references to Japanese, Chinese and Russian archives.
Hong Bom Do
1) http://chaos.suwon.ac.kr/~hwpark/rusia/rusiapho.htm Prof. Park Whan, Suwon University, Photo Archives
2) http://1109.co.kr/home/history/history_korea/bongo.htm Hong Bom Do in the Bong-oh-dong Battle
3) http://soback.kornet21.net/~sk9505/inmool/cho36.html General Hong Bom Do
4) http://www.independence.or.kr/unisql/dispatcher/indeman/indeman_detail.html?id=p0079 Hong Bom Do, Hall of Fame Independece Fighters.
5) http://user.chollian.net/~mdle3/pds/hbd.htm Hong Bom Do
6) http://my.dreamwiz.com/rho2580/hong_byumdo.htm Encyclopedia of Famous Koreans
7) http://www.tgedu.net/student/tfokuk/html/text/il1053.html Newspaper article on the Bongoh-dong Battle
8) http://www.independence.or.kr/exhibition/1995/1995-023.htm Korean Armed Groups in Manchuria
9) http://www.dalgu.net/55815/w-24.htm The Bongoh-dong Battle
10) http://solnuri.hihome.com/literature/sanmoon/j/j-8.htm The Visitors, A novel on Hong Bom Do's soliders.
11) http://user.chollian.net/~mdle3/pds/bongoh.htm Newspaper article on the Bongoh-dong Battle
12) http://jungto.org/gf/kor/min/book18.htm History of the Bongoh Dong Battle
13) http://www.independence.or.kr/exhibition/1995/1995-046.htm Bongoh-dong battle area photos today.
1) http://www.deungsan.pe.kr/essay7.html Samsu Kapsan
2) http://www.naramal.com/02unmun/hyundae/samsugapsan.htm Samsu Kapsan - A Poem
3) http://nongae.gsnu.ac.kr/~jcyoo/reread/san.html On the way to Samsu Kapsan
4) http://www.m2000.co.kr/week/991223/1223131.html Lee Ung Soo on Kapsan
Bongsu study. States that "sam-su" refers to Huh-chung, Heysan and Hu-myon, the three rivers that merge to form the Yalu River.
Kim Il Sung partisans
1) Kim Il Sung - The North Korean Leader - Dae Sook Suh, Columbia University Press, NY 1988: an authoritative treatise on Kim Il Sung's biography with extensive references to Japanese, Chinese and Russian archives.
2) Communism in Korea - The Movement - Robert A. Scalapino and Chong Sik Lee, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1972; includes information on anti-Japanese movements during the first three decades of the 20th century.
3) http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/jucheon/column4-7.htm Kim Il Sung - South Korean View (Wonkang University)
4) http://www.korea-np.co.jp/pk/001st_issue/97072012.htm Kim Il Sung - North Korean View (People's Korea)
5) http://preview.britannica.co.kr/spotlights/nkorea/person/b03g1869a.html Kim Il Sung, Korea Britannica
6) http://www.kimsoft.com/korea/kimilsun.htm Who was Kim Il Sung? By Lee Wha Rang
North Korean leaders
1) http://preview.britannica.co.kr/spotlights/nkorea/person/middle01.html North Korea Who's Who, Korea Britannica
2) http://inmul.donga.com/inmul_search/north_korea/nk_inmul_list.php3 North Korean Leaders - Dong-ah Il bo
For information on World War II
1) The Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan 1894-1945 - S.L. Mayer, Military Press, NY, 1976; contains information on Japanese war activities from 1850 - 1945.
2) The Modern World - Esmond Wright, The Hamlyn Publishing Group, Ltd., New Jersey, 1979
1) http://www.kimsoft.com/2000/kimgu.htm Who was Kim Gu? by Lee Wha Rang
2) http://mnum.mokpo.ac.kr/cspark/lecture/persons/index.htm Brief bios of prominent Koreans - pre-Liberation
3) http://profyang.ms98.net/poem2/2-10.htm Who's who post-Liberation
4) http://monthly.chosun.com/html/199910/199910290029_1.html Wolgan Chosun; Korean War Revisited
American and Soviet occupation of Korea
1) Korea: The Unknown War - Jon Halliday and Bruce Cumings, Pantheon Books, NY, 1988; a Pentagon paper on the Korean War with extensive entries from the native side.
2) The Origins of The Korean War - Bruce Cumings, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1981. This masterpiece on Korea (1945 - 1947) details US Army's continuance of the Japanese colonial rule using the Japanese personnel and Korean traitors.
3) http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/p&d.htm UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR. CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY, UNITED STATES ARMY, WASHINGTON, D. C., 1992
http://www.aks.ac.kr/kwonhy/ Korean History and Political Ideology
Yi Sung Gye
1) http://1109.co.kr/home/history/history_korea/josun_beginning.htm Founding of the Yi Danasty
2) http://ns.koreastudy.co.kr/1/index11/98.htm Yi Sung Gye biography
3) http://my.netian.com/~chakhani/ina3-1.htm Historical figures
4) http://user.chollian.net/~hephziba/kor02.html Choe Yong and Yi Sung Gye
5) http://myhome.naver.com/hodram99/ks/leesung.htm Yi Sung Gye's war records
6) http://www.news-times.co.kr/2000-06tomb.html Yi Sung Gye's grave
Kim Gu's meeting with Kim Il Sung
1) http://www.kimkoo.or.kr/research/article/np00042400.htm A New Look at North-South Relations
2) http://www.kimkoo.or.kr/research/article/np98041800.htm Historical Significance of Kim Gu's Trip North
Cheju April 3rd Uprising
http://www.kimsoft.com/1997/cheju.htm The Cheu April 3rd Massacre Not Forgotten.
1) US Military Operations 1945-1985 - Kenneth Anderson, The Military Press, NY, 1984.
2) The Truth About The Korean War - Kim Chul Baum, Eulyoo Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea, 1991; eyewitness stories of a number of communist participants of the War - contains documents on Mao's dealings with Kim Il Sung and Stalin; tainted by South Korean propaganda.
3) The Chinese War Machines - James E. Dorman and Nigel de Lee, Crescent Books, NY, 1979; a history of the Chinese Liberation Army; has a section on the Korean War.
1) http://mbcweb.mbc.co.kr/sisa_docu/nowtell/html/vod/vod_5.html MBC Documentary on Yosu including actual film footage and eyewitness accounts.
2) Appendix I Captain James Hausman’s report on the Yosu insurrection.
1) http://banmin.or.kr/n_chungsan60/gun/cbd.htm Chae Byong Duk, Fat Chae, commander of the Rhee's army
2) http://banmin.or.kr/n_chungsan60/gun/kcr.htm Kim Chang Ryon, Rhee's Counter Intelligence chief
3) http://www.kimsoft.com/1997/hausman.htm James Hausman: The US Captain Who Managed Rhee Syngman - Hausman memoirs.
4) http://www.kimsoft.com/2001/ussr-kr.htm Origin of the Korean War - USSR archives
The early CIA activities
1) In the Devil’s Shadow: U.N. Special Operations During the Korean War, Michael E. Haas, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 2000.
2) Spies and Provocateurs - Wendell L. Minnick, McFarland, N Carolina, 1992; an encyclopedia of spies uncovered; has an article on Tofte on p571.
3) Perilous Mission: Civil Air Transport and CIA Covert Operations in Asia - William M. Leary, The University of Alabama Press, 1984; contains chapters on several CIA covert operations in Korea and China.
4) The Man Who Kept The Secrets - Richard Helms and the CIA - Thomas Powers, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., NY; an inside story of the CIA history and evolution; has a footnote on Col. Hans Tofte. pp 323-4.
5) The Espionage Establishment - David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, Random House, 1967; has a chapter on the Chinese spy operations; has a footnote on Col. Hans Tofte on pp 164-5.
General information on Korean War
1) Korea The Untold Story of the War - Joseph C. Goulden, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY, 1982: another Pentagon paper on the Korean War with extensive references to US classified documents.
2) Korean War History and Tactics - Consultant Editor David Rees, Crescent Books, NY, 1984; some basic facts on the War.
3) US Military Operations 1945-1985 - Kenneth Anderson, The Military Press, NY, 1984.
4) The Hidden History of the Korean War - Isidore Franklin Stone, Monthly Review Press, NY, 1952; the first attempt to describe the real Korean War.
5) In Mortal Combat - Korea, 1950-1953, John Toland, William Morrow and Co., NY, 1991.
The following FOIA documents are available from the National Archives:
US Central Intelligence Agency, Implementation of Soviet Objectives in Korea, Office of Research and Estimates 62 (18 November 1947)
US Central Intelligence Agency, The Current Situation in Korea, Office of Research and Estimates 15-48 (18 March 1948)
US Central Intelligence Agency, Prospect of the Survival of the Republic of Korea, Office of Research and Estimates 44-48 (28 October 1948),
US Central Intelligence Agency, Communist Capabilities in South Korea. Office of Research and estimates 32-19 (21 February 1949)
US Central Intelligence Agency, Consequences of US Troop Withdrawal From Korea in Spring, 1949. Office of Research and Estimates 3-49 (28 February 1949)
US Central Intelligence Agency, Current Capabilities of the North Korean Regime, Office of Research and Estimates 18-50 (19 June 1950)
US Central Intelligence Agency, Possible Communist Objectives in Proposing a Cease Fire in Korea, Special Estimate 8 (6 July 1951)
US Central Intelligence Agency, Communist Capabilities and Probable Courses of Action in Korea Through Mid-1952. National Intelligence Estimate 55 (7 December 1951).
US Central Intelligence Agency, Military Indications of a Possible large-scale Communist Attack in Korea in the Immediate Future, Special Estimate 25 (28 April 1952)
US Central Intelligence Agency, Communist Capabilities and Probable Courses of Action in Korea. National Intelligence Estimate 80 (3 April 19531)
US Central Intelligence Agency, Probable Communist Reactions to Certain Possible UN/US Military Courses of Action With Respect to the Korean War. Special Estimate 41 (8 April 1953).
Rhee Syngman's hand-written note ordering Gen. Won Yong Duk to kill Kim Sung Ju was presented as evidence at Won's Court Martial: http://www.kimkoo.pe.kr/ass19490626/ass19490626.htm (Korean National Assembly - Report on Kim Gu Assassination). He claimed that he was ordered to kill Kim by Rhee Syngman and so he was not guilty, but the court found him guilty.
China's entry in the Korean War
1) Enter the Dragon - China's Undeclared War Against the U.S. in Korea, 1950-51, Russell Spurr, New Market Press, NY 1988: eyewitness accounts of the Korean War by the Chinese.
2) In Mortal Combat - Korea, 1950-1953, John Toland, William Morrow and Co., NY, 1991.
3) http://centurychina.com/history/krwarfaq.html Korean War FAQ - Chinese POV
4) http://www.kimsoft.com/korea/cn-korea.htm China's Decision to Enter Korean War
Information on Operation Trudy:
1) Korea The Untold Story of the War - Joseph C. Goulden, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY, 1982: another Pentagon paper on the Korean War with extensive references to US classified documents.
2) Korean eyewitness accounts: personal correspondence with Kang In Mo and participants.
3) http://www.quickbook.co.kr/search/bookview.asp?cdno=3563 Memoirs of Col. Geh In Ju, KLO commander
Young Duk Landing:
1) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-fornv/rok/rok-name.htm US Navy History archives
2) Author's conversations with survivors.
For Sun Tzu's lessons on war, see: http://www.kimsoft.com/polwar.htm Sun Tzu on the Art of War
More general information on the Korean War:
1) A General's Life - Omar N. Bradley and Clay Blair, Simon and Schuster, NY, 1983. Gen. Bradley was the top US military man during the War and relates the 'inside' story.
2) Korea The Untold Story of the War - Joseph C. Goulden, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY, 1982: another Pentagon paper on the Korean War with extensive references to US classified documents.
3) Korean War History and Tactics - Consultant Editor David Rees, Crescent Books, NY, 1984; some basic facts on the War.
4) US Military Operations 1945-1985 - Kenneth Anderson, The Military Press, NY, 1984.
5) The Truth About The Korean War - Kim Chul Baum, Eulyoo Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea, 1991; eyewitness stories of a number of communist participants of the War - contains documents on Mao's dealings with Kim Il Sung and Stalin; tainted by South Korean propaganda.
1) http://library.thinkquest.org/20186/korean/history/history1-3.htm Silla's Wharang 花郞徒.
2) http://my.netian.com/~juny0124/std4.htm King Jinhung and Wharangdo 花郞道精神
3) http://www.contest.co.kr/~run8806/interpia98/society/html/treetime/halang.htm Wharnagdo
4) http://www.contest.co.kr/~run8806/interpia98/society/html/treetime/yusin.htm Gen. Kim Yu Sin, a wharang
http://my.netian.com/~kimnala/kimyusin4.htm Kim Yu Sin 金庾信
5) http://www.musul.net/musul/kuhapright.htm Wharang Spirit
6) http://uou.ulsan.ac.kr/~history/report/korgodae/12-1.htm The Three Kingdom Era
7) http://jm-park.pe.kr/highkora/trad_art.html Korean Traditional Martial Arts
8) http://my.netian.com/~bam010/korean-ethics.html Korean Ethics
9) http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/source/silla01.htm Silla Research
Student armies during the Korean War:
1) http://taebaek.kangwon.kr/cht.htm Memorial tower for the Students Army. 學徒義勇軍
2) http://www.edunet4u.net/jungbo/milit/docu2.html Student Volunteers Army remembered
3) http://warmemo.co.kr/special_98_56.htm History of Student Volunteers Army
For information on UN operations in North Korea
1) Miracle in Korea - Glenn C. Cowart, University of South Carolina Press, 1992: a detailed account of the Battle of Hamhung from an American perspective. This is the only known publication specifically written on the Battle of Hamhung, most important battle of the Korean War.
2) Enter the Dragon - China's Undeclared War Against the U.S. in Korea, 1950-51, Russell Spurr, New Market Press, NY 1988: eyewitness accounts of the Korean War by the Chinese.
3) In Mortal Combat - Korea, 1950-1953, John Toland, William Morrow and Co., NY, 1991.
4) The Battle for Korea - Robert J. Dvorchak, The Associated Press, 1993; contains rare photographs of war actions and a fairly detailed history of the War. Most war photos are from the National Archives, Washington, DC.
The section on "An American GI in Kapsan" was based on a private communication with an American veteran, Rudy Zimmerman, whose account was verified by another member of his unit with the US 7th Infantry Division. Rudy led a recon squad and had crossed the Yalu into China. I am appreciative of their contributions. They asked to remain anonymous, fearing harassment by flag-waving "patriots". See http://www.kimsoft.com/1997/us-kapsa.htm An American GI and a North Korean Farmer for Rudy's story.
5) http://www.history.navy.mil/books/field/ch9d.htm#top History of United States Naval Operations: Korea has a brief account of my stricken ship.
6) http://www.kmike.com/hungnam.htm USS Diachenko, APD 123 Hungnam, 12/25/50 - Crewman Describes Hungnam Evacuation
7) http://www.navsource.org/archives/06/690.htm NavSource Online: Destroyer Escort Photo Archive DE- 690 / APD -123 USS ALEXANDER DIACHENKO escorted my LST to Mukho.
Information on Koje Island
1) http://www.kojehotel.co.kr/htmls/tourists/kojeis.html Jangsung-po Beach Hotel Home Page
2) http://philip.koje.com/mainpage.html Phillip's Koje Home
3) http://city.koje.kyongnam.kr/english/default.asp Koje City Home Page
4) http://control.gsnu.ac.kr/~neoman/koje/poro.htm Koje POW Camps
5) http://www.kojenet.or.kr/e/e-1/inforporo_3.asp Koje Information Center
6) http://museum.ulsan.ac.kr/puankyung/haean/spot.htm History of Kojedo
For information on Koje POWs
1) http://www.kcaf.or.kr/htdocs/Hyperdrama/D00765/abs.html Red and White - The Tragic Life of Lee Hak Gu
2) http://my.netian.com/~hksk/suyoung.html Kim Soo Young's POW camp experience poems
3) http://korea50.army.mil/history/factsheets/pow.html US Army Fact Sheets on POWs.
4) http://control.gsnu.ac.kr/~neoman/koje/poro.htm Koje POW Camp Museum
5) http://www.kimsoft.com/2000/dprk04.htm Memorandum Of The Ministry Of Foreign Affairs Of The Democratic People's Republic Of Korea
6) http://centurychina.com/history/krwarfaq.html Chinese POWs
Kim Chang Ryong
1) http://www.ihs21.org/sub4-html/7pjs.htm Kim Chang Ryong and His Plots - by Park Jun Sung, Sung-Gyun Kwan
2) http://minjok.or.kr/n_chungsan60/gun/kcr.htm 일제 관동군 헌병에서 대한민국 특무부장까지 김창룡(金昌龍 1916~1956)
Yi Sung Yup and other conspirators
1) http://banmin.or.kr/n_chungsan60/ji/lsy.htm banmin web on Yi Sung Yup
2) http://banmin.or.kr/n_chungsan60/ji/jim7.htm banmin web on Cho Il Myon
3) http://www.hidb.co.kr/cgi-bin/man/manSearchForm.cgi Chosun Ilbo Name Database
4) http://www.dapis.go.kr/mndweb/daily/1999/04/0414-10.htm Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai
5) http://www.independence.or.kr/media_data/thesis/1999/199909.htm Korean Independence and Communists
For information on Alice Hyun and her family:
1) Mansei! The Making of a Korean American (Kolowalu Book), Peter Hyun, University of Hawaii Press, 1986
2) In the New World: The Making of a Korean American, Peter Hyun, University of Hawaii Press, 1995.
3) http://chungdong.org/english/menu1-4.htm History of Chung Dong Church
4) http://www.iic.edu/korean-studies/archive/0012/msg00017.html Rev. Hyun's communist party connection
5) Michael Munk, private communications.
6) http://www.nadir.pe.kr/KimKoo/Sub/sub92.htm Rev. Hyun Soon biography
7) http://user.chollian.net/~ikch0102/n-35.htm Korean Christians in the March 1st Movement
8) http://user.chollian.net/~ikch0102/y-2-13.htm Koreans in Hawaii
9) http://www.christnews.com/church100/2000/ch100_65.htm History of Korean Christians in America
10) http://www.kmib.co.kr/missiontoday/c_history/root/roottxt33.html Korean Christians in Hawaii
11) http://www.mofat.go.kr/korean/gallery/museum/letter.htm Archives of Korean Diplomacy - includes a photo copy of Hyon Soon's letter to President Harding on May 11, 1921, there was no reply or acknowledgement.
12) http://cnntv.org/us/theology/c_history/ Korean Christianity
13) http://www.independence.or.kr/media_data/thesis/1999/199906.htm Koreans in Hawaii
14) http://www.independence.or.kr/exhibition/tempgov/imsi.htm Korean Independence Museum
15) http://www.cantina.net/family/hyun/tree.html Hyun Soon Family Tree
Koreans in America
1) http://www.joonganghi.com/News/2000/01/dhm-3.htm 100 Year Anniversary of Korean Immigrants to America
2) http://members.tripod.lycos.co.kr/icanzeus/m5.htm Ro Baik Lin, a Korean American air force pioneer.
3) http://my.netian.com/~achim21/no.htm More on Gen. Ro Baik Lin (1875-1926).
4) http://my.netian.com/~achim21/air.htm History of Korean Aviation
Yo Woon Hyung
1) Yo Wun Hyung's Independence Army - Yo Wun Hyung planned to raise an army of 100,000 before liberation but Japan surrendered too soon for him.
2) Yo Wun Hyun's Secret Army in North Korea - Yo sent Park Sung Whan and other former officers of the Japanese army to help found the People's Army.
3) Yo Wun Hyung and Kim Il Sung before Liberation - Excerpts from Kim Il Sung Memoirs - With the Century
4) Yo Wun Hyung and Kim Il Sung in 1946 - Yo Wun Hyung met Kim Il Sung five times in 1947 in a vain effort to form a coalition.
5) Who killed Yo Wun Hyung? - Was it Rhee Syngman or US Gen. Hodge?
6) The Cilley Report: Background Information on Kim Gu's Assassination
7) The Tragic Saga of A Revolutionary - General Mu Jong